1). Thurstone’s Primary Mental Abilities theory purposes that, researches can pinpoint specific group factors and define those factors specifically. Thurstone listed the follow factors of intelligence. 1. Verbal Comprehension: This factor can include reading and verbal equivalences. 2. Word Fluency: Measures the speed a person can name words in a given category, for example, tools that start with the letter R. 3. Numbers: The speed and accuracy of math problems. 4. Space: visualization and recognition of 3 dimensional shapes and how they would appear if flipped or rotated. 5. Associative Memory: A person’s skill in wrote memory. 6. Perceptual Speed: Recognizing similarities or difference in visual facts. 7. Inductive Reasoning: The finding of patterns in number series are a good example of this measure. Thurstone’s theory of intelligence is still in use today to investigate adult intelligence as we age.
2. Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Theory is a broad measure of factors split into three main parts, stratum I, II, and III. This theory purposes up to 70 different abilities that can be measured into intelligence testing. Some of these are broad, but some of these factors are quite narrow in scope.
The main difference between theses is that, Thurstone’s theory is broken up into more general categories, were as, CHC is comprised of multiple broad and narrow categories, as they comprise a more comprehensive list. (Gregory, 2014).
Analyze challenges related to assessing individuals in your assigned age group and describe any special ethical and sociocultural issues which must be considered. Summarize the implications of labelling and mislabeling individuals in your assigned age group as a result of testing and assessment.
Aging is difficult at times and can leave those who are 60 plus years old feeling like they are no longer valued. One area that is seen as a stereotype is the view many have on the elderly and intelligence. It is true that many lay people assume as we age, we decline sharply in the area of intelligence, but this is not entirely true. For example, more resent studies have shown fluid intelligence may decline, but crystallized intelligence is steady or even rises as we age. So we can imagine working with those who are 60 plus years of age, in the field of testing and assessment. That we should be mindful of the stereotypes that that generation faces in the area of being judged by others as less intelligent and less useful than those that are younger. Labeling the elderly with the stereotype of not being useful or intelligent, can lend to those who are 60 plus in age from getting jobs, that they are well suited and qualified for. (Gregory, 2014).
Analyze and provide evidence from validation studies supporting and opposing the use of specific instruments with your assigned population.
Longitude testing on intelligence and aging has shown that some assessment instruments, such as test that require speed tests like Word fluency and test that involve timed mathematical problem solving, that look to speed for a more positive result. (Gregory, 2014).
Present the pros and cons of individual versus group assessment of ability.
Group testing are usually standardized testing, that is given to a general populace of students or individuals to measure performance and aptitude in scholastic knowledge. These tests do not take into account any cultural, environmental, social economic issues, or an individual’s overall intelligence based on other factors, other than scholastic knowledge. Such testing is not bad, especially when achievement needs to be generally measured across student domains. Individual assessments testing can be more toned for that person’s age and cultural realities. (Gregory, 2014).
Gregory, R. J. (2014). Psychological testing: History, principles, and applications (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.