Analysis of Factors in the Transfer Process

Analysis of Factors in the Transfer Process

Read the “The Learning Machine” transcript.

Transfer of Learning Presentation

Select specific detailed examples of learning theories (behaviorism, social cognitive, information processing and constructivism) in the video that demonstrate ways to apply transfer of learning concepts in a specific workplace of your choosing.

Prepare a 10-12 slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation with speaker notes for your classmates on your ideas.

Address the following in your presentation:

Relate the example to one or more of the explanations of transfer of learning included in one of the learning theories.

Provide a description of how this example can be generalized to the workplace.

00:30inside out

UNKNOWN In flight school, we’re learning about aerodynamics and flight operation procedures.

00:35UNKNOWN And I can put in navigation radio.

00:40PHIL CROWLEY When we think of learning, education may first come to mind.

UNKNOWN Now, they seem and, uhm– talked to…

00:45UNKNOWN After I learned Arabic, I can talk to my grandmother in her language.

00:50PHIL CROWLEY It’s the way we improve and enrich our lives.

00:55UNKNOWN Learning to be a tennis player is my ticket to college.

01:00PHIL CROWLEY But learning is much broader, it’s any relatively permanent change in behavior brought on by experience. Through experience, we learn to associate one event with another. As a child, we might learn that gravity can be a harsh critic, a trip to grandma’s can lead to cookies and a visit to a doctor can lead to pain.

01:30The Learning Machine

MICHAEL MERZENICH, I UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

01:35MICHAEL MERZENICH, I The cerebral cortex, this big cortical mantle that is the main thing you see when you look onto a brain. The main thing that’s filling your skull you could say, ah, it’s a learning machine and it’s supported by a subcortical machinery that’s controlling in that learning, that’s modulating, that’s regulating it.

01:55PHIL CROWLEY Inside the brain, information is processed by neurons forming neural networks. These networks connect one event with another.

02:05MICHAEL MERZENICH, I The barin is continually associating information across time. That is to say it’s continually generating constructive implants that relate to what is concurrently occurring or occurring across excessive time. So for example, if you train an animal connected distinction about things in a sequence in time in which there is a fall by being– it actually create selectivity for the sequence.

02:30[music]

02:35MICHAEL MERZENICH, I Neuron’s response was powerfully to be when they’re proceeded by a– it actually see that development upbringing.

02:40PHIL CROWLEY We use the term conditioning to refer tosimple types of associative learning. The Scientific study of conditioning began in 1898.

02:50JAMES L. McGAUGH, PH.D. FELLOW, NEUROBIOLOGY OF LEARNING & MEMORY CENTER

JAMES L. MCGAUGH One of the most influential set of findings ever in the, in the history of the field of learning in memory came from a laboratory of Ivan Petrovich Pavlov in Russia who had won a Nobel Prize for studies of digestion. And in the course of these studies had develop the technique for having the saliva come outside of the cheek of the dog to into a pouch so that he could study the chemical content of the saliva. And what he learned one day was that the dogs began to salivate before they got the food that was going to start being digested. And he said, “Wait a second. What’s going on?”

03:25GINGER OSBORNE, PH.D. SANTA ANA COMMUNITY COLLEGE

03:30GINGER OSBORNE My guess if I were to put myself in his place, I would think that stupid dog. He is responding where he’s not suppose to throw a mouth and we’ll get a fresh dog and start over again. And I tend to imagine that that might have been what he initially thought. But a good scientist is one who is able to put aside their expectations. And actually seewhat is going on, and this is what Pavlov did.

04:05JAMES L. MCGAUGH What he learned was cues that are associated with food will come to induce the same or if someone response which is the salivation response. A dog can be presented with some kind of a cue, ah, and he use such things as running water or a block square or something of that kind associated with food, put on the dog’s trunk and eventually the dog would come to salivate to whatever cue is being used.

04:30GINGER OSBORNE And so, he dropped his work on the digestive process in salivation and began to study what he called a conditioned reflex. We now call it classical conditioning because it was the first type of learning that wasstudied.

04:55DAVID G. MYERS, PH.D. AUTHOR, PSYCHOLOGY & EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY

DAVID G. MYERS Pavlov’s work was really important for two reasons. One, it demonstrated that you could study basic processes of learning scientifically and so it gave input as to the scientific prospective in psychological science. Secondly, his principles of conditioning are applicable to many other human realms then just dogs drooling. And so, for example, human fears are conditioned. I was in my car one day anddriving down the road and a car came from the side and go through a stop light, ah, and hit me. Ever thereafter is I approached that intersection, ah, and intersections like it because I generalized from that experience. I would cautiously look and slow down a bit. Ah, that was a conditioned emotion and it was a Pavlovian conditioned emotion.

05:45UNKNOWN Wooh!

UNKNOWN I don’t wanna do this.

UNKNOWN I do.

05:50UNKNOWN I don’t wanna get off now.

SUSAN MINEKA, PH.D. NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY

SUSAN MINEKA We know that, ah, one of the primary ways people learned fears is one something that they are originally not afraid of, gets paired with some negative experience. If they were swimming and almost drown, they would be quite likely to acquire fear of water in those circumstances. Some people try to discredit a conditioning fear of phobias by saying, “It doesn’t work for everybody.” Well, we expect that prior experience knowing that, ah, an object to a situation is safe, is going to help protect you against later learning that it’s dangerous.

06:25JOHN CACIOPPO, PH.D. UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO

JOHN CACIOPPO So that classic example, a Pavelov, the bell going off and the meat powder, the bell of its, its salvation. Okay? Well, let’s say that I have, ah, a lot of pre-exposure to that bell. Late in a vision says that that dog will not learn to salivate to that bell just because it linked with meat powder because of many, many, many exposures to that bell that wasn’t associated with meat powder.

06:50PHIL CROWLEY Though we usually think of learning is anadaptive process, some associations made by the brain may have destructive effects.

07:00JOHN CACIOPPO So where did prejudices come from? Well, our cultural views or beliefs that we’ve learned as children hereholds certain things to be true about African-Americans versus Caucasians. And now, you might be educated and know those to be in accurate. But you still have that associative structure in your head that associative structure can influenceyour behavior and why is it a quite subtle.

07:25TRAVIS GIBBS, PH.D. RIVERSIDE COMMUNITY COLLEGE

TRAVIS GIBBS With the definition of learning, it is relativelypermanent changes. Just because you’re conditioned, it doesn’t mean you can’t become unconditioned. Because if you learned how to do this, then you can on learn how to do it and do something else.

07:40PHIL CROWLEY The research of Psychologist John Garcia took the study of classical conditioning in a remarkable direction in 1974. At that time, sheep ranchers in California’s Antelope Valley, worked well with wild coyotes destroying their herds. The need for a solution inspired Garcia.

08:00JOHN GARCIA, PH.D. PROFESSOR EMERITUS, UCLA

JOHN GARCIA Then, I met Carl(ph) (inaudible ) who was a very bright student on his own study in coyotes. As if, “You get the coyotes and, ah, and we can teach ’em not to eat sheep.

08:10PHIL CROWLEY The coyotes were fed mutton laced with lithium chloride which made them ill. Garcia’s coyotes now associated their illness with the taste and smell of sheep meat.The results were remarkable.

08:25JOHN GARCIA And they were often ate mutton just like that. We wonder two trials at the most would coyotes, they hit the sheep as to somewhere in the flank or at the side, ah, and going for the– certainly and there’s real back as free kind of conical. Then, the sheep then starts bluffing and it doesn’t have a horn (inaudible ) and they hasn’t– and the car has no rules, give way.

08:50PHIL CROWLEY But with this conditioned taste diversion actually work in the wild.

08:55JOHN GARCIA And so then, we put together a, a mutton bate with lithium chloride and it– and wrapped it in a wool so that it could be dispensed out in the field. Stewart(ph) and Allen(ph) scattered those bates along their way. We should have picked up and he zeroed a lamb kills in Antelope Valley.

09:20PHIL CROWLEY This highly adaptive one-trail learning helpsensure our survival. Evolution, it seems, has equipped us to learn some lessons more quickly than others.

09:30SUSAN MINEKA A colleague and friend and friend of mine inSweden, Arna Hermann(ph), had been studying whether there are something special about the learning of, uhm, snake fear. You take him in subjects who weren’t afraid of snakes or spiders or flowers and you present them with slides. Some of the slides were followed by very mild electric shock to their hand. He found that when you paired snakes or spiders with mild electric shocks a few times that the human subjects would pick up or conditioned fear and quotes response is in to expire the galvanic skin response. But when you told them, “It won’t gonna present the shocks,” it didn’t seem to matter that they knew that they won’t gonna get shocked anymore. The fear was maintained. And by contrast, if you paired pictures offlowers with mild electric shocks, people would pick up the fear. But when you told them you were gonna present the shocks, the fear went away immediately. The reason people are more likely to pick fears of snakes is because those who had quickly picked up a fear would have had a selected advantage relative to those who didn’t pick up those fears readily who might be at more risk and didn’t stay at around to pass on their genes.

10:55UNKNOWN Perfect. Go Liza(ph).

11:00PHIL CROWLEY This idea of animals that negotiating their environment by moving to rewards and away from dangers was critical to the theories of Psychologist B.F. Skinner. Skinner became famous for his lifetime of research into a second type of associative learning called operant conditioning.

11:20DAVID G. MYERS Operant conditioning pertains to behaviors that operate upon in the environment to produceconsequences, so the organism does something. And then, there’s a consequence that’s either punishing or rewarding. And behaviors that are rewarded tend to be strengthened. And if the behavior is strengthen by the consequence that follows that, we called that a reinforcement.

11:40PHIL CROWLEY Using a system of reinforcement, Skinner was able to gradually shake an animal’s behavior. Skinner conditioned animals of many species to perform behaviors based on reinforcement. He claimed that regardless of the species, their response to reinforcement was virtually the same.

12:00JOHN GARCIA And so, he said, that was a power of his message that he couldn’t tell the difference between the pigeon, a rat and monkey.

12:10PHIL CROWLEY Examples of operant conditioning are found just about everywhere.

12:15RONALD E. RIGGIO, PH.D. CLAREMONT COLLEGE

RONALD E. RIGGIO If you think about how we reward employees, then the reinforcement there is– are very important. And important helping us understand, uhm, ah, work goes on in a work place. People are getting rewarded and it’s done on schedules just like the rats in a, in a Skinner boxes. And so, there are lots of parallels there.

12:35PHIL CROWLEY At the Taub Clinic in Birmingham, Alabama,Dr. Edward Taub and his team use operant conditioning to help victims of traumatic brain injuries. Virginia Garlitz is relearning to walk after her body was paralyzed by an AVM.

12:50VIRGINIA GARLITZ

VIRGINIA GARLITZ AVM is an Arterial Venous Malformation. Venous having to do with vein, it’s nothing to do with the glottis. I was very disappointed to find out and I just finished a Spanish literature class and was sitting and talking to a student. And all of a sudden, I just lost the left side. It’s been very tough because what you take you for most of your life just hasn’t there anymore.

13:15EDWARD TAUB, PH.D. UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA, BIRMINGHAM

EDWARD TAUB One of our central procedures is called shaping which is a type of operant conditioning. It was developed in the context of operant psychology, behavior modification. And it’s essential nature is to take a behavioral objective that is just a little beyond the capability of a person at a given point time. But you keep making it just a little moredifficult so that the person doesn’t fail very often. But you keepextending the behavioral capacity a little bit at a time. But in a very short of time that odd can end up to a very substantial improvement of movement.

14:05PHIL CROWLEY To shake Virginia’s walk, Therapist Jean Crago challenges Virginia to navigate over barriers but therapy is intense. Even Virginia’s subtle list improvements are reinforced with encouragement.

14:20JEAN CRAGO Focus on left to make– oh, good. Just keep walking.

14:25VIRGINIA GARLITZ Oh.

JEAN CRAGO Just a walk to in there. Good. Okay. Three tofive minutes to this way, all the way. That’s good. So that’s it.

14:35EDWARD TAUB The therapist writes down the number of repetitions that the person does. The type of, ah– or the quality of the, the movement and that is reported to the patient after each trial quantitatively. And this is very satisfying for the patient because they know that their improvement which the therapist tells them about doesn’t losery. It is real.

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