1. Which layer in a soil profile contains the most organic matter? A. C-horizon B. A-horizon C. B-horizon D. O-horizon 2. Where is the water…

1. Which layer in a soil profile contains the most organic matter? A. C-horizon B. A-horizon C. B-horizon D. O-horizon 2. Where is the water table located? A. Under the zone of saturation B. Below the layer of bedrock C. At the top of the zone of saturation D. In the layer of bedrock 3. Which one of the following types of rock would weather the fastest? A. Large blocks of granite B. Large blocks of clay C. Small pieces of granite D. Small pieces of clay 4. The factors that allow a river to erode materials include all of the following except A. shape of the riverbed. B. temperature of the river. C. amount of river discharge. D. slope of the river. 5. What is not a typical result of wind erosion? A. Large rocks are left behind. B. Dry soil is left behind. C. Wet soil is left behind. D. Small rocks are transported away. 6. Carbonic acid forms when carbon dioxide is absorbed into water. The action of carbonic acid on _______ may produce sinkholes, caverns, and formations like stalagmites. A. limestone B. sandstone C. clay D. granite 7. Which one of the following is a source of chemical weathering? A. The growth of mosses in the cracks of rocks B. Water freezing in the cracks of exposed rocks C. The abrasion of running water D. The effects of acid from decaying animals 8. Calcium is carried in water by a process known as A. solution. B. flotation. C. suspension. D. traction. 9. An example of an impermeable material is A. clay. B. sand. C. gravel. D. water. 10. What is the process by which water dissolves certain minerals in the soil and carries them away? A. Abrasion B. Leaching C. Weathering D. Erosion 11. Headwaters are usually found A. at the mouth of a river. B. near land drained by a river system. C. high in the mountains. D. in large channels in flat areas. 12. The Grand Canyon was formed as a result of A. deposition. B. erosion. C. deflation. D. landslides. 13. Loam is made up of all of the following materials except A. clay. B. silt. C. gravel. D. air. 14. An underground layer of permeable material that contains groundwater is called a/an A. aquifer. B. water table. C. headwaters region. D. zone of saturation. 15. Deflation is a process of erosion by _______ which leaves desert pavement behind. A. wind B. water C. temperature D. time 16. The beginning of a river is usually located A. near the base of a divide. B. near the mouth of the river. C. high in the mountains. D. at the bottom of its watershed. 17. The decayed organic matter in soil which is beneficial to plant growth is called A. silt. B. loam. C. humus. D. clay. 18. The most important measure of the size of a river is the A. width of its mouth. B. number of its tributaries. C. size of its watershed. D. volume of its discharge. 19. In referring to Earth’s systems, which one of the following statements is accurate for an open system? A. An open system exchanges energy with its surroundings. B. An open system is unchanging. C. An open system is unaffected by outside objects. D. The human influence has little effect on an open system. 20. Which one of the following statements is correct? End of exam A. Stalagmites are formed from water containing salt. B. Stalagmites form on the ceiling of a cavern. C. Stalagmites are cone-shaped deposits. D. Stalagmites are narrower than stalactites.

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