Which of the following is a case-control study? [ONE POINT]
Study of past mortality or morbidity trends to permit estimates of the occurrence of disease in the future
Obtaining histories and other information from a group of known cases and from a comparison group to determine the relative frequency of a characteristic or exposure under studyc. Analysis of previous research in different places and under different circumstances to permit the establishment of hypotheses based on cumulative knowledge of all known factors
Study of the incidence of cancer in men who have quit smoking
Both a and c
In a study of a disease in which all cases that developed were ascertained, if the relative risk for the association between a factor and the disease is equal to or less than 1.0, then: [ONE POINT]
There is no association between the factor and the disease
There is either no association or a negative association between the factor and the disease
The factor protects against development of the disease
Either matching or randomization has been unsuccessful
The comparison group used was unsuitable, and a valid comparison is not possible
A random sample of middle age sedentary males was selected from four census tracts, and each man was examined for coronary artery disease. All those having the disease were excluded from the study. All others were randomly assigned to either an exercise group, which followed for a two-year program of systematic exercise, or to a control group, which had no exercise program. Both groups were observed semiannually for any difference in incidence of coronary heart disease.
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