Discuss relationship between humans and their computers is called human-computer interaction
Wisdom is defined as understanding applying and applying with compassion
(Englebardt & Nelson 2002 p. 13).
The process of data ? information ? knowledge ? wisdom is known as the Foundation of Knowledge model (Englebardt & Nelson 2002). According to Courtney Alexander and Demiris (2008) information technology is implemented in nursing practice in the same novice-to-expert pattern that nursing intervention uses to support patient and provider decision making.
Theory Development and Nursing Information Systems
According to Elkind (2009) information systems are of significant assistance to advanced nursing practice. Information systems theorywhich begins with input throughput and output and ends with the closure of the feedback loopconnects with traditional communication theory which begins with the sender and then processes the message through to the receiver.
Early behavioral theories further influenced the development of nursing informatics. For example (i) the emphasis on all levels of nursing theory abstraction (i.e. Nursing Philosophies Grand Theories Conceptual and Theoretical Models Theories and Middle-Range Theories). (ii) Then change theories. One example is of Lewins (1951) change theory whereby change is facilitated by unfreezing introducing change and refreezing but other change theories addressed included Lippitt Watson and Westleys (1958) seven phases of planned change; Havelocks (1973) six phases of planned change; Rogers (1995) diffusion of innovation model; Prochaska Redding and Evers (2002) transtheoretical model; Kotters (1995) process for leading change; or Berwicks (2003) from description to prescription.
Popular systems theory has also had an impact on the development of nursing informatics. Simpson (2000) states that systems theory is about connectedness interdependency integration the value of the individual and the power of the collective . . . . So too is healthcare information technology which brings together systems to gather and generate data and knowledge for assessment and decision making (p. 80). The abstracting of nursing theory and informatics theory into new formalizations for advancing the nursing profession may be the answer to bringing theory practice and research together to form a unified whole for the future.
Another theoretical contribution comes from the field of cognitive science. According to Sease (2008) cognitive science offers nursing information systems the explanation of how human behavior interacts with computers. One outcome is the recognition that more workflow-driven systems are needed rather than data-driven systems (Murphy 2010).
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