Describe how lactic acidosis and ketoacidosis affect blood pH levels and oxygen transport in the blood.
Competency 208.5.3: Myoglobin and Hemoglobin – The graduate constructs models of various states of hemoglobin, demonstrates how changes in the usual configuration of hemoglobin can lead to molecular disease, and distinguishes between the chemical structure and function of hemoglobin and myoglobin.
Competency 208.5.5: Carbohydrate Metabolism, Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) – The graduate constructs models of carbohydrates and demonstrates metabolism of carbohydrates; and demonstrates how adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is essential to energy transfer in the cell and how irregularities in ATP synthesis in the cell can cause cytopathologies.
Competency 208.5.6: Lipids – The graduate constructs models of fatty acids and demonstrates why lipids are essential to the functioning of cells.
You are the lead nurse on a medical team caring for a patient who has been recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. One of the new nurses on the team is curious about the early prescription for metformin given by the attending physician and has asked for clarification to better understand the benefits and risks of this medication. Because you have a working knowledge of biochemical concepts as well as a good relationship with the new nurse, the physician has asked you to help the nurse understand the effects of metformin and why it is used as a treatment for type 2 diabetes.
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